Résumé : Strictly speaking all mammals are dairy animals.However, only some of them have been domesticated. Domestication of dairy animals has mainly evolved on the basis of the regular production of a sufficient quantity of milk to cover human nutritional needs. The ability of dairy animals themselves...Strictly speaking all mammals are dairy animals.However, only some of them have been domesticated. Domestication of dairy animals has mainly evolved on the basis of the regular production of a sufficient quantity of milk to cover human nutritional needs. The ability of dairy animals themselves to adapt to specific geographical areas and patterns—which shape climate conditions as well as the flora and fauna diversity of a region—has also determined theprevalence of certain breeds in different regionsof the world. This, in turn, has determined the evolution of local pastoral systems and practices,given that livestock management is closelylinked to the natural resources available in differentregions.The ease of transforming milk to dairy products, such as fermented milk, cheese, and butter,gradually became the foundation for local practicesand skills and thus of local dairy culinary traditions in various regions around the world.It should be stressed, however, that these opportunities are often accompanied by the limitationsof human skills, socioeconomic factors as well as religious beliefs. These limitations have historicallybeen the parameters that have determinedwhich dairy products have survived throughout time.Although the dairy cow has been the predominant domesticated animal species for milkproduction, sheep, goat, water buffalo, yak, camel, and mare as well as other minor mammalianspecies have also been domesticated. Theseanimals have been kept and bred for milk productionnot only in developed countries but alsoin regions around the world where the environmentrequired special adaptation and for which many of the noncow mammals are better suited.As a result, cow milk dominates global milk productionand represents 83% of the world’s total milk production.In addition to cow milk, buffalo milk makesa substantial contribution at the global level,accounting for 13% of the world’s production.The contribution of milk from goats (2.6%), sheep (1.2%), and camels (0.4%) is limited at the globallevel. For other animal species, such as horses,donkeys, and yaks, no world-scale statistics areavailable but their contribution to global milkproduction is estimated to be less than 0.1%.Additionally, a marginal production of reindeer and llama milk is reported in the literature andeven some wild species, such as zebra or eland,are described as potential dairy animals. However, noncow milk is considered to havehuge economic and social importance in specificregions where it can serve as a tool for the improvement of food and economic securityand as well as to reduce poverty. On the otherhand, industrialization of dairy production is increasing in many places, largely due to thegrowing demand for food. Some smallholdersmay be able to take advantage of these opportunities and operate as sustainable and profitablesmallholder agricultural production systems.Whether large numbers of smallholders will be able to do this in a carbon-constrained globaleconomy and in an environment characterizedby a changing climate and by increased climaticvariability will depend on many things,x Prefaceincluding improved regulations, implementationof social protection and strengthening oflinks to urban areas, and substantial investment in agriculture. Understanding how smallholdersystems may evolve in the future is criticalif economic and food security goals are to be achieved.The significance of noncow milk is underlined by the fact that the International DairyFederation organized, between 1985 and 2007,five successful symposia on sheep and goat milk. Moreover, two of the most recent ones,held in 2011 and 2015, expanded their thematologyto other types of noncow milk, such as buffalo,camel, donkey, yak, etc.The aim of this book is to give a compiled and renewed vision of the knowledge existingthus far on noncow milk as well as theemerging challenges including the (a) socialand environmental aspects; (b) animal health,welfare, and nutrition; (c) quality, safety, andanalysis of milk and dairy products; (d) existing and emerging technologies for processingand products; and (e) nutritional aspects ofmilk and dairy products. Thus the thematology of the book addresses a wide number of professional groups involved in the noncow milksector, such as academia, milk producers, dairyindustry, trade associations, and government and policy makers
Résumé : Starting in the early 1970s, Kiwi scientists, technologists and marketers, working closely with industry politicians, made us world leaders in the new technology of dairy ultrafiltration. They turned huge amounts of otherwise waste whey into highly tailored and valuable food ingredients. Their...Starting in the early 1970s, Kiwi scientists, technologists and marketers, working closely with industry politicians, made us world leaders in the new technology of dairy ultrafiltration. They turned huge amounts of otherwise waste whey into highly tailored and valuable food ingredients. Their work kicked off smart processing techniques that now earn more than a billion dollars a year. Whey to Go was written by the people who did the job. It's a fascinating study of industrial innovation in the real world, adding value to our primary produce and solving an environmental problem.
Résumé : Dans une première partie, une étude bibliographique présente les connaissances sur les influences de la sélection (croissance, lard). Dans une deuxième partie, le problème de la longévité des animaux performants est posé, notamment chez les truies maigres à forte croissance....Dans une première partie, une étude bibliographique présente les connaissances sur les influences de la sélection (croissance, lard). Dans une deuxième partie, le problème de la longévité des animaux performants est posé, notamment chez les truies maigres à forte croissance. L'importance du lard dorsal dans les objectifs de sélection pourrait être remise en cause au moins pour les lignées femelles.