Résumé : In social aphids of the genus Tuberaphis a cysteine protease gene of the family cathepsin B exhibits soldier-specific expression and intestinal protease production. The product is orally excreted and injected by soldier nymphs into natural enemies, thereby exerting an insecticidal activity. In an...In social aphids of the genus Tuberaphis a cysteine protease gene of the family cathepsin B exhibits soldier-specific expression and intestinal protease production. The product is orally excreted and injected by soldier nymphs into natural enemies, thereby exerting an insecticidal activity. In an attempt to gain insights into when and how the novel venomous protease for the altruistic caste has evolved, we investigated the soldier-specific type (S-type) and nonspecific type (N-type) cathepsin B genes from social and nonsocial aphids. All the social aphids examined, representing the genera Tuberaphis, Astegopteryx, and Cerataphis, possessed both the S-type and N-type genes. Phylogenetically distant nonsocial aphids also possessed cathepsin B genes allied to the S-type and the N-type, indicating the evolutionary origin of these genes in the common ancestor of extant aphids. In Tuberaphis species the S-type genes exhibited significant soldier-specific expression and accelerated molecular evolution whereas the N-type genes did not. In Astegopteryx and Cerataphis species, meanwhile, both the S-type and N-type genes exhibited neither remarkable soldier-specific expression nor accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the S-type gene acquired the soldier-specific expression and the venom function after divergence of the genus Tuberaphis. On the structural model of the S-type protease of Tuberaphis styraci the accelerated molecular evolution was associated with the molecular surface rather than the catalytic cleft, suggesting that the venom activity was probably acquired by relatively minor modifications on the molecular surface rather than by generation of a novel active site. In Cerataphis jamuritsu the S-type gene was, although containing a stop codon, structurally almost intact and still transcribed, suggesting recent pseudogenization of the gene copy and possible relevance to relaxed functional constraint in the highly multiplied protease gene family. On the basis of these results we suggest that the massive amplification in aphid cathepsin B genes might have predisposed the evolution of venomous protease in the social aphid lineage and argue that gene duplication, accelerated molecular evolution, and acquisition of novel gene function must have played considerable roles in the evolution of complex biological systems including insect sociality.
Résumé : Aphids exclusively feed on plant phloem sap that contains much sugar and some nonessential amino acids but is poor in lipids and proteins. Conventionally, it has been believed that aphids substantially have no intestinal digestion of proteins. However, we here report an unexpected finding that...Aphids exclusively feed on plant phloem sap that contains much sugar and some nonessential amino acids but is poor in lipids and proteins. Conventionally, it has been believed that aphids substantially have no intestinal digestion of proteins. However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific overexpression. By making use of expressed sequence tag data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary, and recent duplications. Estimation of molecular evolutionary rates indicated that major alterations of the rates often occurred after duplications. For example, a gene copy (""348"") was shown to be slow evolving and close to genes of other insects like Drosophila melanogaster, whereas the other gene copies appeared to have evolved faster with higher ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions. We identified a number of gene copies (16 in A. pisum) that contained a replacement at the site required for catalytic activity of the protease. Among these, 2 copies were pseudogenes, whereas the remaining copies were structurally intact and possibly acquired new functions. For example, a cluster of such gene copies (""1674"") has been subjected to positive selection. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the more conserved gene copy (""348"") showed a constitutive expression, whereas 5 other forms (""84,"" "" 16,"" "" 16D,"" "" 1874,"" and ""2744"") were preferentially expressed in the gut of A. pisum. Putative biological roles of the diversified cathepsin B-like gene copies in aphids are discussed in relation to their nutritional physiology specialized for plant sap feeding lifestyle"
Résumé : Lactobacillus helveticus strains, one of the most nutritionally fastidious lactic acid bacteria, have a potent proteolytic system that makes them very interesting for different uses in the dairy industry. Its applications concern from cheese ripening to the preparation of fermented milk products...Lactobacillus helveticus strains, one of the most nutritionally fastidious lactic acid bacteria, have a potent proteolytic system that makes them very interesting for different uses in the dairy industry. Its applications concern from cheese ripening to the preparation of fermented milk products with biologically active peptides. The cell-free extract (CFE) of Lactobacillus helveticus strain ITG LH1 was analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), using IPG immobiline dry strips (pH 4#7). With the aim to study the proteolytic enzymes expressed by Lactobacillus helveticus ITG LH1 grown in milk medium, a two step-chromatography methodology, based on ion exchange and affinity chromatography, was developed for the preparation of a peptidase-rich sub-proteome from the CFE of stationary growing cells. Several affinity chromatography columns were tested and among them a HiTrap Chelating column was selected as it provided the best performance for the enrichment in peptidases. Peptidase activities were studied using different #-Naphtylamide (#-NA) derivatives and specific activities were increased 50- to 100-fold by this chromatographic procedure. Sub-proteome characterisation was performed by 2D-PAGE, pH 4#7, followed by protein digestion with trypsin, analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subsequent database searches using peptide mass fingerprints. Among the most abundant proteins seven peptidases were present, namely the two general aminopeptidases (PepN, PepC), three dipeptidases (PepDA, PepV, PepQ) and two endopeptidases (PepO, PepO3), all of them corresponding to the catalytic classes of metallo- or cysteine-peptidases. Several stress proteins (such as heat shock proteins DnaK and GroEL) and other enzymes implied in bacterial metabolism, namely in the carbohydrate pathways (such as LDH), were also identified in the peptidase-rich sub-proteome.
ArticleInclusion of sugar-beet pulp and change of protein source in the diet of the weaned piglet and their effects on digestive performance and enzymatic activitiesLizardo, Rosil ; Peiniau, Jany ; Aumaître, Aimé
Localiser ces bibliothèques : - Bibliothèque générale de Rennes - UMR STLO 811864 : Bibliothèque générale de Rennes (Bibliothèque générale de Rennes) - Cote = B 54 783258 : UMR Science et technologie du lait et de l'oeuf (UMR STLO) - Cote = TAP 6037,PB
757258 : UMR Physiologie Environnement et Génétique pour l 'Animal et les Systèmes d'Elevage (UMR PEGASE) - Cote = ELMEP -94.059